FOURTH SUNDAY IN LENT/ International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination


Due to copyright limitations, we are unable to print the words to many of the songs.  However, our musicians have chosen music to fit the scriptures.  We invite you to look up the words in your worship book and ponder them.  If you do not have a worship book, ponder the words to one of your favourite hymns and listen for God’s voice. Those who have internet may find the songs on YouTube.

Parts of today’s worship are taken from Living on the Path of Respect: A Worship Service on the Repudiation of the Doctrine of Discovery.

What is the Doctrine of Discovery?: The Doctrine of Discovery refers to a set of proclamations from the Pope that reflected the belief that Europeans were the ones to discover the lands that are now called North and South America. This discounted the truth that many nations and peoples, with rich cultures and spirituality, were living on this land. The claim of “discovery” was based on the criterion that one had to be Christian to be considered human—it created categories of race. Since Christians were not present on the land, it was deemed “unoccupied.” It was therefore considered to be open for Christian European sovereigns to invade and lay claim to, and to subjugate and assimilate the peoples. For more background, please search “doctrine of discovery” at www.united-church.ca.


It is only with the heart that one can see rightly; what is essential is invisible to the eye.

~Antoine de Saint-Exupery


Lent used to be the time to give up desserts, alcohol, or other indulgences as a sign of penitence and preparation for the events of Holy Week. Somewhere along the line, “giving up” something changed to “taking on” something, such as a spiritual practice. Today, we may find ourselves understanding Lent as a time to search out “what is pleasing to the Lord” (Eph. 5:10), that which is “good and right and true” (Eph. 5:9). What are changes you could make in your life this Lent to improve your wellness, relationships, and happiness? What attitudes or ideas no longer fit who you are and hold you back? Lent can be a time for searching out what good things God has in store for you.


We acknowledge we gather and worship on Treaty 1 Territory, the original lands of Anishinaabeg, Cree, Oji-Cree, Dakota, and Dene peoples, and on the homeland of the Métis Nation.

Holy Spirit, fill us with the power and the courage to trust in you and to trust in others. Help us to trust in the deep wisdom and traditional knowledges that you have gifted to our Indigenous neighbours. Help us to accept the gift of learning from our neighbours that we may broaden and deepen our understanding of how to live together, to share resources, to put our complementary skills to work together, and most of all to build on our common desire to live in wholeness together as all of your peoples. We thank you for the blessing you have given us to know you better by getting to know our neighbours better in all of their diverse God-given beauty.  Guide us, we pray.  Amen.


Creator has placed each and every one of us here with purpose!

Let us praise Creator for the earth below our feet.  For Mother Earth sustains us, and all creation cries out for justice.

Creator has given us the eastern direction:

the direction of vision, children, and the sun that rises on us each day.  Let us view the world with child-like wonder—full of awe and humility.  Thankful for the new day that dawns on us each and every morning, we give thanks for God who gives us new mercies every day.

Creator has given us the southern direction:

the direction of honesty, adolescence, and growth.  Help us to speak only the truth, and open our hearts to hear the stories of others.  Inspire us to grow in the image of Christ who teaches us to walk the good path.

Creator has given us the western direction:

the direction of adulthood, harvesting, and deep spiritual understanding.  Give us the tools we need to act on the knowledge we are gathering, allowing us to act with maturity and grace.

Creator has given us the northern direction:

the direction of Elders, achievement, and a deep connection to spirituality.  Empower us to learn from the past, and to move forward to create your companionship of empowerment* here on Mother Earth.

Holy Spirit, give us the teachings we need to correct any wrongs, and to live lives full of love, peace, and hope.

Be with us now, Creator, as we worship you in awe-filled praise. Amen.

“Companionship of empowerment” is a term that John Dominic Crossan offers to replace the “Kingdom of God” (in Marcus Borg, ed.,

     Jesus at 2000 (Westview, 1998), p.22–55).

CHILDREN’S SONG:  Praise Him, Praise Him


O God, it is you who is Creator of the universe. We thank you for entrusting to us such a beautiful Earth for us to live in and enjoy. Help us to respect your abundant gift. Be with us so that we can walk gently upon Earth and share what you have given to all of us. Help us to care for it and rejoice in it with all of your children. Amen.


We are not alone; we live in God’s world.

We believe in God:  who has created and is creating, who has come in Jesus, the Word made flesh, to reconcile and make new, who works in us and others by the Spirit.

We trust in God.

We are called to be the Church:  to celebrate God’s presence, to live with respect in Creation, to love and serve others, to seek justice and resist evil, to proclaim Jesus, crucified and risen, our judge and our hope.

In life, in death, in life beyond death, God is with us.  We are not alone.  Thanks be to God.

CHILDREN’S CHAT:  “You Belong to the Land”

(This story is adapted by the Rev. Won Hur from an ancient Sufi wisdom story, which he first encountered in Tales for an Unknown City: Stories from One Thousand and One Friday Nights of Storytelling, collected by Dan Yashinsky (McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1990), p.14. The central character is a person named Hodja who often uses humour to convey wisdom.)

A long time ago in a land far away, there was a man who owned a small but beautiful farm. He loved his land, took care of it, and grew fruits, vegetables, and grain. Unfortunately, he had to travel far away to visit his relatives and to take care of them. Since the land needed to be taken care of during his absence, he asked a friend to look after it. After what seemed like a very long time, the man finally returned. He was very happy to be back to his land and resume taking care of the land. But the friend who had taken care of his land did not want to give it back.

He said, “You were away from here for too long. During that time, I took care of it. I weeded it. I sowed and planted and reaped the harvest. I put my heart and soul into it as though I was taking care of my own child. So I don’t want to give it back. I consider it mine now.”

The owner of the land said, “No, it is mine. I only wanted you to take care of it while I was gone. You

need to give it back.”

The friend answered, “It is my land now. Sorry.”

So, there was a big argument. Both men refused to give in. Before letting the argument turn into a serious fight, they decided to consult with someone who is very wise living in their village, named Hodja.

Hodja came to the farm land the two people were arguing about. Hodja listened carefully to both sides of the story. After hearing their stories, Hodja put his ear on the ground. The two men were wondering, “Hodja, what are you doing with your head on the ground?”

Hodja replied, “I am listening to what the land has to say about all this.”

The two men thought that Hodja was a bit crazy and they started to laugh. Still laughing, they asked, “So what is the land saying?”

Hodja replied, “The land says the two of you belong to the land.”

Indeed, God, who created the universe, also created this Earth. As such, it belongs to God. God told us to take care of it. Our world is God’s magnificent creation. It is a beautiful gift that God has given to us for us to love not only for us but for all the children and grandchildren to come. We need to live with respect in creation.

MINUTE FOR MISSION:  Educating the Ministers of Tomorrow: Jennifer Janzen-Ball’s Work

You may think Mission & Service just happens far away from your church.

But the effects of Mission & Service may be as close as your local pulpit.

Mission & Service does a surprising amount of development in your local church, recruiting new ministers and funding theological schools. It even shapes the hymn books you sing from every service.

Another important way Mission & Service supports local ministry: by providing academic bursaries for students studying to become ministers and theological leaders.

“The church has a lot to offer in terms of witness to the community and supporting people who are struggling,” explains the Rev. Dr. Jennifer Janzen-Ball, the United Church’s Executive Minister for Theological Leadership.

The money is really helpful, but the other thing that is so important to students is realizing that people throughout the church cared enough to donate to Mission & Service.

Janzen-Ball knows there’s more to a bursary than just the financial gift. “The money is really helpful,” she says, “but the other thing that is so important to students is realizing that people throughout the church cared enough to donate to Mission & Service.”

The Rev. Alexa Gilmour received one of these bursaries when she was still a ministry candidate. “I was a single parent, and I knew I couldn’t get through without support,” Gilmour says. “I felt blessed by God through people who donated and who, by giving, encouraged me on my journey.

“I have tremendous gratitude for that important role the church played in my life at that time.”

Janzen-Ball wants you to know that your gifts do matter.

“They matter both tangibly in peoples’ lives in a real way but also in intangible ways because they signal the support of the wider community,” she says. “The care of people who are strangers to one another―the importance and impact of that can’t be overstated.

“Giving to Mission & Service is an opportunity to support future and current leaders. Those gifts make a significant difference.”

A more detailed video, A Deeper Look: Educating the Ministers of Tomorrow is available on YouTube.


Bend your ear to our prayers, Lord Christ, and come among us. By your gracious life and death for us, bring light into the darkness of our hearts, and anoint us with your Spirit, for you live and reign with the Father and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.


First Reading: 1 Samuel 16:1-13

Samuel anointed David even though he was the eighth-oldest son of Jesse and did not match his brothers in height or other physical characteristics. With the anointing came endowment with the Spirit of the Lord, designating David as the Lord’s chosen successor to Saul.

1The Lord said to Samuel, “How long will you grieve over Saul? I have rejected him from being king over Israel. Fill your horn with oil and set out; I will send you to Jesse the Bethlehemite, for I have provided for myself a king among his sons.” 2Samuel said, “How can I go? If Saul hears of it, he will kill me.” And the Lord said, “Take a heifer with you, and say, ‘I have come to sacrifice to the Lord.’ 3Invite Jesse to the sacrifice, and I will show you what you shall do; and you shall anoint for me the one whom I name to you.” 4Samuel did what the Lord commanded, and came to Bethlehem. The elders of the city came to meet him trembling, and said, “Do you come peaceably?” 5He said, “Peaceably; I have come to sacrifice to the Lord; sanctify yourselves and come with me to the sacrifice.” And he sanctified Jesse and his sons and invited them to the sacrifice.

6When they came, he looked on Eliab and thought, “Surely the Lord’s anointed is now before the Lord.” 7But the Lord said to Samuel, “Do not look on his appearance or on the height of his stature, because I have rejected him; for the Lord does not see as mortals see; they look on the outward appearance, but the Lord looks on the heart.” 8Then Jesse called Abinadab, and made him pass before Samuel. He said, “Neither has the Lord chosen this one.” 9Then Jesse made Shammah pass by. And he said, “Neither has the Lord chosen this one.” 10Jesse made seven of his sons pass before Samuel, and Samuel said to Jesse, “The Lord has not chosen any of these.” 11Samuel said to Jesse, “Are all your sons here?” And he said, “There remains yet the youngest, but he is keeping the sheep.” And Samuel said to Jesse, “Send and bring him; for we will not sit down until he comes here.” 12He sent and brought him in. Now he was ruddy, and had beautiful eyes, and was handsome. The Lord said, “Rise and anoint him; for this is the one.” 13Then Samuel took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the presence of his brothers; and the spirit of the Lord came mightily upon David from that day forward. Samuel then set out and went to Ramah.

Psalm 23

R:  You anoint my head with oil. (Ps. 23:5)

1The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not be in want.
2The Lord makes me lie down in green pastures and leads me beside still waters.
3You restore my soul, O Lord, and guide me along right pathways for your name’s sake.
4Though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I shall fear no evil;
for you are with me; your rod and your staff, they comfort me. R
5You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies;
you anoint my head with oil, and my cup is running over.
6Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life,
and I will dwell in the house of the Lord forever. R

Second Reading: Ephesians 5:8-14

Because we now live in the divine light which is Jesus Christ, we conduct our lives in ways that reflect the light of Christ, so that our activity is truly pleasing to God.

8Once you were darkness, but now in the Lord you are light. Live as children of light—9for the fruit of the light is found in all that is good and right and true. 10Try to find out what is pleasing to the Lord. 11Take no part in the unfruitful works of darkness, but instead expose them. 12For it is shameful even to mention what such people do secretly; 13but everything exposed by the light becomes visible, 14for everything that becomes visible is light. Therefore it says,

“Sleeper, awake!  Rise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you.”

Gospel: John 9:1-41

Jesus heals a man born blind, provoking a hostile reaction that he regards as spiritual blindness to the things of God.

1As  walked along, he saw a man blind from birth. 2His disciples asked him, “Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents, that he was born blind?” 3Jesus answered, “Neither this man nor his parents sinned; he was born blind so that God’s works might be revealed in him. 4We must work the works of him who sent me while it is day; night is coming when no one can work. 5As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world.” 6When he had said this, he spat on the ground and made mud with the saliva and spread the mud on the man’s eyes, 7saying to him, “Go, wash in the pool of Siloam” (which means Sent). Then he went and washed and came back able to see. 8The neighbors and those who had seen him before as a beggar began to ask, “Is this not the man who used to sit and beg?” 9Some were saying, “It is he.” Others were saying, “No, but it is someone like him.” He kept saying, “I am the man.” 10But they kept asking him, “Then how were your eyes opened?” 11He answered, “The man called Jesus made mud, spread it on my eyes, and said to me, ‘Go to Siloam and wash.’ Then I went and washed and received my sight.” 12They said to him, “Where is he?” He said, “I do not know.”
13They brought to the Pharisees the man who had formerly been blind. 14Now it was a sabbath day when Jesus made the mud and opened his eyes. 15Then the Pharisees also began to ask him how he had received his sight. He said to them, “He put mud on my eyes. Then I washed, and now I see.” 16Some of the Pharisees said, “This man is not from God, for he does not observe the sabbath.” But others said, “How can a man who is a sinner perform such signs?” And they were divided. 17So they said again to the blind man, “What do you say about him? It was your eyes he opened.” He said, “He is a prophet.”

18The Jews did not believe that he had been blind and had received his sight until they called the parents of the man who had received his sight 19and asked them, “Is this your son, who you say was born blind? How then does he now see?” 20His parents answered, “We know that this is our son, and that he was born blind; 21but we do not know how it is that now he sees, nor do we know who opened his eyes. Ask him; he is of age. He will speak for himself.” 22His parents said this because they were afraid of the Jews; for the Jews had already agreed that anyone who confessed Jesus to be the Messiah would be put out of the synagogue. 23Therefore his parents said, “He is of age; ask him.”

24So for the second time they called the man who had been blind, and they said to him, “Give glory to God! We know that this man is a sinner.” 25He answered, “I do not know whether he is a sinner. One thing I do know, that though I was blind, now I see.” 26They said to him, “What did he do to you? How did he open your eyes?” 27He answered them, “I have told you already, and you would not listen. Why do you want to hear it again? Do you also want to become his disciples?” 28Then they reviled him, saying, “You are his disciple, but we are disciples of Moses. 29We know that God has spoken to Moses, but as for this man, we do not know where he comes from.” 30The man answered, “Here is an astonishing thing! You do not know where he comes from, and yet he opened my eyes. 31We know that God does not listen to sinners, but he does listen to one who worships him and obeys his will. 32Never since the world began has it been heard that anyone opened the eyes of a person born blind. 33If this man were not from God, he could do nothing.” 34They answered him, “You were born entirely in sins, and are you trying to teach us?” And they drove him out.

35Jesus heard that they had driven him out, and when he found him, he said, “Do you believe in the Son of Man?” 36He answered, “And who is he, sir? Tell me, so that I may believe in him.” 37Jesus said to him, “You have seen him, and the one speaking with you is he.” 38He said, “Lord, I believe.” And he worshiped him. 39Jesus said, “I came into this world for judgment so that those who do not see may see, and those who do see may become blind.” 40Some of the Pharisees near him heard this and said to him, “Surely we are not blind, are we?” 41Jesus said to them, “If you were blind, you would not have sin. But now that you say, ‘We see,’ your sin remains.”

HYMN:  Something Good Is Going To Happen Today


Based on the book Nothing Ever Happens on My Block, by Ellen Raskin

“Nothing ever happens on my block.”  Pout.  “God, why can’t I win the lottery, just once?”  Whimper.  “It’s not fair!  Why does everyone else get what they want and I’m stuck with nothing?!”  Whine.  “But I WANT it! Why can’t I have it?!  Why?”  “How come I have to do all the work?!”

It’s very easy to join our friend, Chester, out on the sidewalk.  If we look at our lives from our perspective, it’s obvious that we deserve better treatment!  When WE are the subject of our lives, it makes sense that the world should live up to our expectations, and if it doesn’t, well, we’ll just have to sue–or better yet, get revenge!!

I really like this children’s book because adults can learn so much from it.  I read this book and I think, “Come on kid, surely you can hear the fire engine sirens, the wail of the ambulance and see the parachute as it lands on your head?!  Surely you notice that someone has just gotten hurt, that a car accident has occurred in front of your face?!”  But no, Chester continues to sit and stare into nothingness.  But then, there’s not much to see when you sit in the dark.  The sad part is, I have met people like this.

The second lesson addresses those people who are darkness as opposed to those who are light.  The Apostle Paul encourages the congregation to live in the light–to avoid darkness.  For the sake of clarity, let us say “sin” instead of darkness, and “relationship with God” rather than light.  So now the first sentence reads, “For once you were sin, but now in the Lord you are in relationship with God.”  Sin is turning away form God.  Separation.  When we live in sin we become very self-centred.  Such is the case with Chester.  He is having a wonderful pity-party sitting on the sidewalk, lamenting the boring state of his block, and his life.  This is sin.  It is to be so wrapped up in the self that one cannot see reality.  One cannot reach out to help a neighbour because when one continues to look at oneself, how can one see anything else?  Sin means to be sitting alone, in the dark.

Chester is self-absorbed.  He wants what HE feels he deserves, never once glancing around to see the needs of all those around him.  When we choose to live in sin, and sit in the dark, what would normally be seen as an opportunity becomes an interruption of our schedule.  What could be a sharing of the gospel of love and acceptance becomes a burden–“Do I really have to do this God, now?  Surely someone else will do it if I don’t.”  The sad part about sin, and its turning away from God, is that satisfaction is never achieved.  The longing and ache for more becomes stronger and stronger.  It eventually leads to despair.  When we become self-absorbed in sin, that is usually when we most want to be loved and needed and acknowledged.  But in sin we turn our backs on God, on love and on healing.  It is a tragic circle.

But enter in the love of Christ, through whom we are called to be in relationship with God.  Christ, who keeps reaching into our darkness hoping that we will decide to turn around and take a hold of a healing hand.  I find it interesting that in the children’s story, Chester is called to come in three times by his mother.  Each time, if he would have turned to her he would probably have seen all that was going on around him.  Instead, he turned further into himself and heard nothing.  He did, however, become even more miserable.

Now let’s take what we have learned from Chester and apply it to our Gospel text.  Notice what is happening here.  It’s the same question people ask over 2000 years later when they can’t come up with a logical answer to one of life’s mysteries: “Rabbi, who sinned?”  In other words, “Who fault is it that this man was born blind?”  Jesus’ response is, “That’s not the point.”  Yet no one seems to be listening to Jesus because, again…”This man is not from God, for he does not observe the Sabbath.”  But others said, “How can a man who is a sinner perform such signs?”  The pharisees have missed the point.  The sad part is, we, even as Christians, get so caught up in asking whose fault it is, or who sinned, that we miss the point of what God can do in any given situation.

Look at our text–the Pharisees keep hauling this poor fellow around demanding answers to their questions and don’t believe him when he does tell the truth.  They keep looking for loopholes because they want to stay sitting in the dark.  To stand in the light of truth would mean that they have to acknowledge that they are wrong, and that Jesus is the Messiah after all, and then they would lose their cushy jobs and the fancy benefits that come with their position in the synagogue.  Two thousand years later you can still read of the same situation in our newspaper headlines.

I find it interesting that the more the Pharisees plague this poor man about his being healed by Jesus, the more he gets the point.  I am certain that for most, if not all, of his life the common thought prevailed and was taught to him that he was blind because he was a sinner, or because his parents had sinned and therefore a blind child was their punishment.  Can we even begin to imagine what teaching this to a child would do to that child?    Yet although he will be expelled from the synagogue if he confesses that Jesus is the Messiah, the one who has been healed can do nothing else but proclaim Jesus as Messiah because of the miracle he has experienced.  He quite cheerfully accepts this excommunication.  The irony of this situation is that this man’s faith in Jesus has made him an outcast, while his parents, out of fear of the religious authorities and fearing being made outcasts, choose to sit in the dark with their backs to God, remaining safe, or so they would like to believe, while maintaining their church membership.

Another point I find very interesting in this text is the fact that Jesus, having heard that this man has been put out of the synagogue, searches him out.  Notice that Jesus immediately asks the question that will determine if the one healed gets the point–“Do you believe in the Son of Man?”  The point, dear people, is not “who sinned”, but rather, “God is going to do amazing acts in this seemingly hopeless situation.”  It is well beyond the time to put behind us the bad theology that says that God ‘zaps’ us for things we have done.  God doesn’t have to zap anybody, the consequences of our actions cause us pain enough.  When are we going to get it into our heads and our hearts that sometimes, just because, circumstances or conditions being what they are, things go wrong or turn out opposite to what we expected or hoped for.  And when are we going to get it into our heads, and our hearts, that God can still work miracles, small though they may be, amidst all these situations.  When we stand in the light of Christ, living that light, we do not ask the question, “who sinned?”, but rather, “God, what can I do for you and for others today?”

It’s time to get out of the dark and get up off the sidewalk.  Wake up!  Rise from the dead, and Christ WILL shine on you!  Amen.

HYMN OF THE MONTH:  VU 105  Dust And Ashes Touch Our Face


One: Let us gather ourselves to be present here and now and join our hearts and minds as we offer praise and thanks and pray for mercy, grace, wisdom, hope, and new life.

Creator God, Holy Friend,

We are humbled in gratitude for this amazing gift of your creation, and for the teachings of Indigenous siblings and cousins that reconnect us to the land, water, sky, and creatures of all kinds. The wisdom of your creation’s balance and harmony is astounding, and we pray that such wisdom will both unite and enliven us even more, given that we are all latecomers to this amazing Earth.

All: Creator God, in thanksgiving inspire us. With your Spirit nurture an attitude of gratitude for all your gifts, and for the wisdom of the Indigenous perspective toward creation.

One: Creator God, Holy Friend,

We are humbled in repentance for the arrogance of Western European churches that turned things around in history, our ancestors making your image in theirs rather than their image in yours. We acknowledge that this distorted image was used to dehumanize others, to conquer nations, and to forcefully expropriate land and resources in your name.

All: Creator God, in your mercy forgive us. With your Spirit lead us to see your face in all humanity, and your spirit of love in all of creation.

One: Creator God, Holy Friend,

We are humbled in lament and sorrow for the Christian church coming to this land armed with the Doctrine of Discovery to confiscate land and to annihilate and dehumanize our Indigenous hosts. Pour your love into our hearts so that we might build right relations of mutuality, equity, and respect and be responsible keepers of the lands and waters.

All: Creator God, in your grace transform us. With your Spirit guide us in living out right relations with all people based on respect and equal rights.

One: Creator God, Holy Friend,

We are humbled in seeking healing for our churches as we move from a legacy of colonization and domination to creating a new history built on right relations and gracious mutual habitation on these lands. For the harm committed in your name against all the First Peoples of the land we are sorry. Despite inflicting such pain, we are aware of so much grace returned toward we who are settlers, as well as the great resilience among Indigenous Peoples themselves, as we share the hope of reconciliation.

All: Creator God, in your wisdom heal us. With your Spirit heal us and strengthen us to be agents of wholeness and wellness with all nations and peoples.

One: Creator God, Holy Friend,

We are humbled in our need for encouragement within the Christian churches who repudiate the Doctrine of Discovery, that our repentance may go beyond words to actions of solidarity and justice. For this we ask for your mercy and wisdom and courage, both to change all doctrines that promote hate and violence by our presumed superiority, and to take up the way of humility, compassion, and caring.

All: Creator God, in your hope give us courage. With your Spirit may we change the churches to live in harmony with all creation and be agents of care for all humanity.

One: Creator God, Holy Friend,

We are humbled as we pray for ourselves and for all Christian churches around the world, that we may faithfully follow the life of Jesus, the Nazarene who showed us the good path of justice, reconciliation, and peace-building. It is the way of life he represented, based on providing for the common good and the sharing of all your Earth’s resources that will enable us, together, to recreate your loving and compassionate empowerment on Earth.

All: Creator God, in your love give us faith and new life. With your Spirit help us to be co-creators of a world of justice and peace. Amen.


SENDING SONG:  VU 642  Be Thou My Vision


Let us go forth called to God’s holy covenant. God continues to guide us: attending to our stories, healing us as brothers and sisters, showing us how to live in right relations. God promises to bless and encourage us on the path of respect. So go with the peace and promise of God, the energy of the Spirit of Love, and the passion of Jesus. Amen.

Copyright © 2016 Augsburg Fortress. All rights reserved. Reprinted by permission under Augsburg Fortress Liturgies Annual License #SAS011617.© 2011 The United Church of Canada/L’Église Unie du Canada. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial Share Alike Licence. To view a copy of this licence, visit:  http://creativecommons.org/licenses/byncsa/2.5/ca.